this thiqar










Thi-Qar governorate is located between laterals 00o N 32o from the north and 36o N 30o from the south (and between longitude E’ 47o 12 from the east and E 45o 36 from the West). Thi-Qar is in the center of five governorates: Wasit and Qadisiyya to the north, Basra to the south, Misan to the east and Muthanna to the west. Thus, Thi-Qar is regarded as the heart of the Iraqi south.



-          The center of its metropolis is 360 km from Baghdad governorate.

-          The center of its metropolis is 180 km from Basra city.



Thi-Qar governorate enjoys a high population of 1,884,000 residents. The percentage of the young age group below 25 years is higher than all other groups. It is regarded as the fourth among Iraq’s governorate, trailing Baghdad, Mosul and Basra, in as far as population is concerned.




                                                1,185,365                                1,200,000



            698,798                                                                       600,000




Countryside residents     urban area residents                                    total



Urban area and countryside governorate population


The governorate is comprised of five countries, and its center is Nasiriyya. These countries are:


-           Nasiriyya: area: 1,778,000 donums1

-          Shatra: area: 725,000 donums

-          Suq al-Shyookh: area: 553,000 donums

-          Rifaee: area: 1,385,000 donums

-          Chibayish: area: 949,000 donums



1Donum is a land measure about 1,000 square meters.


Fifteen districts are distributed in these countries: Islah, Nasr, Qal`at Sikar, Fajr, Sayyid Daheel, Ur, Bathaa, Tar, Fadhila, Akika, Hammar, Karmat Bani Sa`eed, Fuhood, Gharraf and Dawaya. The overall area of the governorate is more than five million donums. 22.5 donums equal one million square kilo meters.




Nasiriyya         Shatra  Rifaee  Suq al-Shyookh           Chibayish


The standard of living for the individuals varies between good, average and poor. The average level forms the highest percentage in income levels. The average monthly income per individual ranges from $100 - $300. Residents work in agriculture, since the governorate is agricultural par excellence, and also in industry. Employment opportunities in the oil sector, which have been provided by oil drilling companies in the governorate following the fall of the past regime, form an important tributary for nourishing the future standard of living.



The governorate is full of human resources which enjoy scientific competencies. This represents a fertile environment for setting up profitable investment projects besides the availability of hundreds of thousands of workers who combine specialized experiences and low wages.







In this governorate, both public and private sectors are active. The public sector s represented by Ur Company for Engineering Industries (UCEI):


Ur Company for Engineering Industries was founded in 1970 and produces various types of wires, aluminum slices, tapes and metal plates. The governorate embraces the Wool Products Factory in addition to Thi-Qar Refinery at a production capacity of 30,000 barrels per day.


As for the private sector, it represents small plants distributed in several areas of the governorate. Their most important one is a plant for brick making.



Thi-Qar governorate is generally distinguished for a warm, long and dry summer and a short winter with little rainfall. The average of rainfall is low in the area and the maximum annual limit of rainfall does not exceed 100 mm/year. The number of rainy days in the year does not exceed forty. Practically, rainfall equals zero during the period from June to October.



The annual relative humidity per year in the governorate ranges from 35% - 40%.



The annual temperature rate in the area is 24.8o. The highest recorded temperature degree for the average high temperature is 45o in the month of July, and the highest recorded temperature is 49o in the month of August.



The average annual evaporation ranges between 3500 – 45000 mm/yr.



The average wind’s speed is 12 km/hr round the year, and it is an average that has been computed according to the remote sensor technology which relies on satellites.


The area squeezed between Muthanna governorate and Thi-Qar is regarded as the best area for installing electricity generating wind fans.





Thi-Qar is located in the heart of the southern part of Iraq, and the populated areas occupy most governorate areas that extend along the Euphrates and al-Gharraf Rivers. This governorate is regarded as one of the most ancient areas settled by mankind where he founded the first human civilization. This is evidenced by the archeological and ancient civilization landmarks such as Ur city, Lagash and others. Below are the most important natural features in it:



Thi-Qar is rich in its natural resources such as water, agricultural lands, oil, natural gas, minerals and other resources needed by an investor to set up successful projects.


(1)   Agriculture:

Thi-Qar governorate has agricultural lands the area of which exceeds one and a half million donums (4 hectares = 1 donum). Date production represents the clearest picture of the agricultural sector followed by wheat, barley, rice, fruits and vegetables. This governorate is distinguished for its animal wealth such as buffalos, cows, cattle, goats, camels and fowls in addition to various vast areas in the marshland areas which are famous for canes, reeds, buffalo breeding and fishing.

(2)   Rivers:

Euphrates River and al-Gharraf River, the most important tributary of the Tigris River, and the rivers that branch out of them traverse Thi-Qar governorate. Both rivers pas through most governorate areas. Also, the main downstream and its major tributaries pass through it, too.


(3)   Oil:

Thi-Qar governorate enjoys great riches and oil potentials, and the Nasiriyya field is regarded as one of the giant files in Iraq, and its oil reserves are estimated within 16 billion barrels. Petronas of Malaysia is extracting oil from the Gharraf field north of the governorate. There are three other discovered fields. The federal government is very keen about developing these potentials and making Thi-Qar a major oil governorate in Iraq similarly with Basra and Imara governorates. Also, the oil ministry has a plan to build a refinery in Thi-Qar which will be the largest in Iraq at a production capacity reaching 300,000 barrels per day and in the most advanced techniques.




Mineral Resources in the Governorate:

Most areas defined for the governorate are covered with sediments that go back to the quaternary age as well as new sediments classified within the following:


-          1 flood plain sediments

-          2 shallow depression and marsh sediments

-          3 sand dunes and continuous sand sheets sediments

-          4 alluvial fan deposits sediments


Generally speaking, these alluvial valley sediments are good for making bricks since the geological investigations have estimated the reserves of soil good for brick making, and the most important sites of these sediments are:


1.  Nasiriyya Argils Site (Thi-Qar):

It is located 13 km north of Nasiriyya. The thickness of the argil sediments is 2.76 m and the argil reserves good for brick making are about 6.39 million cubic meters type C1. Refer to Table (1).


2.  Suq al- Shyookh Site (Thi-Qar):

These sediments are located 25 km southeast of Nasiriyya. The thickness of the sediments is 2 meters, and the calculated reserves in this area are 12.89 million metric tons type C1.


Hydrology of Subterranean Water Reservoirs:

The main subterranean reservoir is 20 meters deep where the sand percentage in the sediments increases, and it is of the confined aquifer type.

The water depth is 3 m below the surface of the earth in the areas close to the banks of the Euphrates and al-Gharraf Rivers. As for the area located between the Euphrates and al-Gharraf Rivers, it represents a hydraulic depression that has been utilized to dig the main downstream canal since the water depth in this area is below 3 m from the surface of the earth.


The seepage of the subterranean reservoir located east of al-Gharraf River ranges from 0.3 – 14 m/day. As for the seepage in the rest of governorate areas, it ranges from 0.2 – 2.0 m/day.


The flow throughout the governorate ranges between 100 – 200 m/day.


The general movement of the waters is from the west and southwest to the north and northeast, and there is a local movement in the direction of the flows of both Euphrates and al-Gharraf Rivers.


The depths of the dug-up wells in the governorate range from 12 – 164 m at the rate of 59 m with the exception of one well located east of the governorate the depth of which is 550 m.


As for the geological reservoirs that date back to the pre-quaternary age, no sufficient information is available about the hydrology and hydrochemistry of these reservoirs due to the absence of wells in the governorate that penetrate the new sediments to reach these reservoirs.


Hydrochemistry of Subterranean Waters:

The hydrochemistry composition of the subterranean waters is the outcome of complex chemical and physical interactions between the carrying medium and that which stores the subterranean waters. The quality of waters changes during their movement from the feeding areas to the outlet areas. The salinity of the subterranean waters in the river banks of the Euphrates and al-Gharraf Rivers ranges from 1000 – 3000 mg/liter, and they are waters of a calcium-magnesium-bicarbonate (Ca-Mg-HCO2), and it is close to the quality of the surface waters and can be used for various purposes. The more distant we are from the river, the more salinity will be as a result of the seepage of surface waters having high salinity that immerse the shallow depressions the salinity of which increases as a result of high evaporation and scarcity of waterfall. The salinity of the waters in these reservoirs ranges from 5000 – 60000 mg/liter.



Geological map for Thi-Qar Governorate


(1 – 3) Infrastructure



The thermal electrical Nasiriyya power station produces more than 600 mw and relies on crude oil and black oil for its fuel. There is also the Nasiriyya gas-powered station which uses natural gas and fuel oil.



Thi-Qar University is regarded as a great scientific edifice in the governorate. It was founded in 1994 and now embraces thousands of governorate residents. It incorporates many colleges the most important of which are those of medicine, engineering, sciences, law, education, arts and others, in addition to two technical institutes in Nasiriyya and Shatra and one private university.


Recently, Sumer University has been inaugurated in Rifaee County among the colleges of which are those of administration and economics, basic education and veterinary medicine.



You can be familiar with the status of the infrastructure of the health sector in Thi-Qar governorate from the following diagram:


Health Buildings in Governorate


147                  5                      7                112             4            2

health insur.  emergency  specialized  main health  200-bed  400-bed

homes            aid center   health         center          hospital   hospital




Thi-Qar governorate enjoys a good road network and it is connected with the other neighboring governorates where there are many land roads:


Baghdad – Nasiriyya – Kut

Baghdad – Nasiriyya – Diwaniyya

Baghdad – Nasiriyya – Samawa

Baghdad – Nasiriyya – Imara


Also, a railroad line passes through the governorate connecting Basra and its ports with Baghdad, Turkey and Europe.



There is in the governorate the Thi-Qar Communications and Post Directorate and branch divisions in addition to non-governmental companies specialized in mobile and wireless communication networks such as Zain – Asiacell – Furatphone – Korek. Thi-Qar governorate was the forerunner among the other governorates in providing optic cable service in it.



(4 – 1) Tourist Sites



Thi-Qar includes a large number of archeological sites. Following an archeological survey of the governorate in 2005, 2008 and 2010, which was carried out by the inspection office of Thi-Qar governorate, the number of archeological sites reached about 1,200.


When Dr. Henry T. Wright, Professor of Anthropology at the Department of Anthropology at the American University of Chicago, in July of 2003, he said that archeology scientists in the West call Nasiriyya the world’s archeological museum because of the large important archeological sites it contains.


 The number of sites in Thi-Qar is more than that of France and Italy combined. As for the historic period of these archeological sites, they vary, starting from the early agricultural villages and the period of the first Sumerian city states within 3000 B.C. when Mesopotamia was divided into cities and mini-states full of buildings, temples and bulwarks. Excavations carried out in these sites have revealed secrets and very important historic rings. Relics were found of a high artistic, literary, cultural and religious value. These cities and their ruins remain standing till this day. Among these sites are:


1.  Ur City:

It is the city of the Prophet of God Abraham, peace with him, and it has his house and the place from which his mission started. It is regarded as the convergence of religions and the Sumerian capital which occupied an important place in the history of humanity. Residence in that city goes back to the slaves period about 4000 B.C. It was one of the min-state Sumerian cities in the age of the dawn of ancestries. Ur is regarded as a sacred religious center by the residents of the Valley of the Two Rivers (Mesopotamia). Gods were worshipped in it the most famous of which were: Nanna moon-god, Anu heaven-god, Eniki primal water-god and goddess Ninkal, wife of the moon-god.


The greatest period through which Ur passed was at the hands of the founder of the important Sumerian empire, Nemo, in the third Ur empire which lasted from 2006 – 2112 B.C. Five kings after him ruled it successively.


2.  Tel al-Aweeli: It is the oldest archeological site in southern Iraq and is located in the Bathaa district, according to the excavation of a French mission. It dates to six thousand years before Christ.


3.  Eridu: It is located 40 km west of Nasiriyya city and is regarded as the first civilized city in the history of humanity, going back to five thousand years B.C.


4.  Bad-Tibra: It is located 15 km west of Shatra city. It is a city residence in which dates back to the slaves period 4000 B.C.


5.  Al-Abeed (Slaves): It is located 6 km west of Ur and is 25 km from Nasiriyya city to the west. It is after this hill that the period known as the slave period (the history of which extended from 4500 – 3800 B.C.) is named.


6.  Lagash: It is located in the Dawaya district and is one of the largest sites.


7.  Criso: It is a city 16 km northeast of Shatra city which was famous during the second Lagash ancestry which lived in the Kuti age 2200 – 2100 B.C. The most famous of its kings is Godia who revived the Sumerian arts and humanity sciences and built temples.






Home of the Father of Prophets, Abraham (peace with him), near the Ziggurat, and its relics testify to the launching of the Hanafi message to the world





The marshes of Thi-Qar are regarded to be among the most important natural tourist landmarks in the south and form the natural basin for the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. They were formed thousands of years ago from the feeding of both of these rivers. The most important of them is the Chibayish in Thi-Qar which is regarded as the largest marshlands of southern Iraq. Its area covers 600 square km, in addition to the Hammar and Hwaiza marshes as well as another group of marshes and shallow waters connected to each other and distributed to the governorates of Basra, Thi-Qar and Misan on land the area of which is more than three million donums south of Iraq.


The marshes have a positive impact on the environment. They are regarded as a good source for providing many food items such as fish, fowls and agricultural resources that rely on plenty and continuous water such as rice and sugar cane.


Some people think that this area is the site which the Old Testament calls the “Gardens of Eden”. Historic and archeological studies and researches point out that this area is the place where the features and civilizations of the Sumerians became clear. This is proven by the Sumerian ruins and inscriptions which have been discovered in it.